Anesthesiology is a part of Medical science, which is the study of different pain reliving medical procedures and drugs that are given to patients who suffer severe pain during surgical procedures. This includes pre and post surgical pain relief procedures. Anesthesiology is the practice of medicine dedicated to the relief of pain and total care of the surgical patient before, during and after surgery.
In general Anesthesia is a medicine that is given for patients who are undergoing any operation. Not many are aware of the types of Anesthesia and their procedures. To Individuals who wish to pursue a career in Anesthesiology need to understand the different types of Anesthesia that are present in Medical Science. This will help them to envision and to choose their filed of interest in Anesthesiology. Anesthesia is given different names depending on the surgical procedures for which it is administered like General Anesthesia, Epidural Analgesia, Spinal Anesthesia and Regional Anesthesia.
General anesthesia is administered to patients to act on their brain and Nervous system. Anesthesia is administered through the patient’s circulatory system. Initially the drug is injected into the body of the patient, which is combined with the gas inhaled and is maintained throughout the duration of the surgery using inhaled anesthetic gas and other drugs. In case of any respiratory problem the doctors may use additional breathing devices to assist the respiration of the patient during the operation. The drug results in complete unconsciousness and hence the patient will feel no pain throughout the operation.
Epidural Anesthesia is also called as Analgesia and is administered to pregnant woman during their delivery to relieve their labor pain. Analgesia is given to patients to give them pain relief, but does not affect the muscle. Hence, even after the drug is given the patient will continue to have the muscle movement during labor. The patients may experience unconsciousness after the operation for few hours depending on the condition.
Regional anesthesia as the name suggests is effective to a particular area or part of the body on which the operation is performed and that area feel numbness and will be free from any sensation. Drugs are used to act on the nerves which spread pain in that area. This is also called as Local Anesthetic drug. Rarely the doctor’s administer sedative or tranquilizing medicine to patients to act on their brain. This is for patients who suffer from fretfulness and nervousness during the operation.
Regional Anesthesia is again divided into different forms and named depending on the area to which it is administered.
Spinal Anesthesia is a form of Anesthesia in which the drug is administered into the patient’s spine through injection. The drug used in this is Novocain, which is a Local Anesthetic drug. Very small portion of drug is used in this Anesthesia and the drug is injected using a small size needle in the area between the back bones of vertebrae. Spinal anesthesia is administered for Cesarean section patients and for patients who are undergoing limb and reproductive organ surgeries.